November 2011 issue of Journal of Cosmology, Volume 17
Editors: Rudy E. Schild and Carl H. Gibson
THE STRUCTURES OF THE UNIVERSE AND THE STRUCTURE OF BLACK HOLES
It has become an article of faith for the cosmology community that the formation of gravitational structures can only be described by the cold dark matter hierachical clustering paradigm. Observations of microlensing and twinkling frequencies by a galaxy, on the line of sight to the quasar, show the point mass objects that dominate the galaxy mass must be Earth mass planets, not stars, Schild (1996). This interpretation by Schild, that the missing mass of galaxies to this day must be planets, confirms the independent Gibson (1996) prediction from basic fluid physics; that is, hydrogravitational dynamics (HGD), that the dominant mass of galaxies is planets in dense Jeans mass clumps (Proto-Globular-starClusters, PGCs), in which all stars form by mergers of these (necessarily) primordial-gas planets. In this issue we suggest that HGD cosmology is supported by all observations and that LCDMHC is falsified. Both the accelerated expansion rate of the universe and the antigravity dark energy explanation are falsified. However, these falsifications have so far been rejected, most recently by the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics. Faith in concordance cosmology is based on obsolete 19th century fluid mechanics, and is blind to many contradictions by modern observations. Modern cosmology requires modern fluid mechanics. Oceanic field tests of relevant stratified turbulence and fossil turbulence wave processes are now available.
This volume is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Darryl Jay Leiter (1937 - 2011). His final research work about revisions to the structure of black holes is completed and published below in "Farewell to Black Hole Horizons and Singularities."
1. A Derivation of the Newton Gravitation Constant and the Proton Mass From The GEM Unification Theory of Baryo-genesis - John Brandenburg, 7200-7224.
2. Towards a synthesis of two cosmologies: the steady-state flickering Universe - Francis M. Sanchez, Valery A. Kotov, & Christian Bizouard, 7225-7237.
3. Non-singular Cyclical Cosmology Without Phantom Menace - Yi-Fu Cai & Emmanuel N. Saridakis, 7238-7254.
4. Zero Kelvin Big Bang, an Alternative Paradigm: I. Logic and the Cosmic Fabric - Royce Haynes, 7255-7278.
5. Zero Kelvin Big Bang, an Alternative Paradigm: II. Bose-Einstein condensation and the Primeval Atom - Royce Haynes, 7279-7292.
6. Zero Kelvin Big Bang, an Alternative Paradigm: III. The Big Bang - Royce Haynes, 7293-7312.
7. Gravitational Stability for a Vacuum Cosmic Space Crystalline Model -J. Montemayor-Varela, J. Morones-Ibarra, A Morales-Mori, A. Mendez-Allende, A. Montmayer-Varela, M. del Castillo-Mussot, G. Vazquez, 7313-7330.
8. Extragalactic Extinction Laws and Quasar Structure from Color differences Between Images of Lensed Quasars - Evencio Mediavilla, 7331-7344.
9. Is Dark Energy Falsifiable? - C. H. Gibson & R. E. Schild, 7345-7358.
10. Towards a Resolution of the Vacuum Energy Density Crisis - R. Oldershaw, 7359-7375.
11. General Relativistic Radiation Pressure Supported Stars as Quasar Central Engines in an Universe Which is Recycling Matter - Abhas Mitra, 7376-7383.
12. Cosmology of Continuum Creation and Annihilation - Nikiforos Ierokomos, 7384-7411.
13. Farewell to Black Hole Horizons and Singularities - C. Corda, D. Leiter, H. Mosquera Cuesta, S. Robertson, R. Schild, 7412-7423.
14. Are Singularities Integral to General Theory of Relativity?, K. Krori, S. Dutta, 7424-7429.
15. The Stability of a Spherical Nebula, James H. Jeans, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Vol. 199, 1-53, 1902. 7430-7484.
This paper provides the fluid mechanical basis of the LambdaCDMHC cosmological model. It neglects viscosity, diffusivity, density (the "Jeans' swindle"), and turbulence. The Jeans length scale V_S x tau_g is presented as the only important length scale of self gravitational instability, where V_S is the speed of sound, tau_g is the gravitational free fall time ~(rho G)^-1/2, rho is density and G is Newton's gravitational constant. Photon kinematic viscosity triggers fragmentation of the plasma at supercluster mass during the plasma epoch starting at 10^12 seconds and ending with galaxy mass at 10^13 seconds (300,000 years) at the transition to gas. Primordial gas viscosity decreases by a factor of 10^13 from that of the plasma, triggering rapid fragmentation of Jeans mass (million solar) clumps of Schwarz viscous scale Earth-mass (millionth solar) gas planets.
16. Turbulence in the Ocean, Atmosphere, Galaxy, and Universe, Carl H. Gibson, Appl. Mech. Rev. 49, no. 5, May 1996, 299-315. 7485-7523.
Oversimplifications of the Jeans 1902 theory are corrected by HydroGravitational Dynamics (HGD) cosmology. The dark matter of galaxies is identified as Earth mass planets in Jeans mass (proto-globular-star-cluster PGC) clumps. A series of hydrodynamic "Schwarz" scales are derived to describe the self-gravitational fragmentation process as it occurs in the expanding universe. Fossils of big bang turbulence are amplified and stretched by the expansion of space (see CMB evidence in papers of Sreenivasan and Bershadskii). Turbulence is defined based on inertial vortex forces, so it must cascade from small scales to various possible larger fossilization scales, contrary to (now obsolete) standard turbulence models.
17. Microlensing Variability of the Gravitationally Lensed Quasar Q0957 + 561 A,B, Rudolph E. Schild, The Astrophysical Journal, 464:124-130, June 10, 1996. 7524-7530.
Twinkling frequencies of the subtracted time delayed A,B images of the quasar show the dominant point mass objects of the lensing galaxy are not stars but small planetary mass objects, interpreted by Schild as the inner-halo missing mass of the lensing galaxy.
18. Clumps of hydrogenous planetoids as the dark matter of galaxies, Carl H. Gibson and Rudolph E. Schild, arXiv:astro-ph/9908335v2. Submitted to ApJ in 1996. 7531-7552.
Many versions of this initial HGD preprint have been rejected during 1996-date by the astronomical and astrophysical literature (ApJ, AJ, PASP, A&A, MNRAS etc.) because HGD rejects the standard (linear and collisionless) LambdaCDMHC fluid mechanics (Jeans 1902) model. Linear perturbation stability analysis cannot be used to accurately describe turbulence or self-gravitational processes. Both self-gravity and turbulence are absolutely unstable non-linear physical processes and become extremely intermittent in space and time.
19. Quasar-microlensing versus star-microlensing evidence of small-planetary-mass objects as the dominant inner-halo galactic dark matter, Carl H. Gibson and Rudolph E. Schild, arXiv:astro-ph/9904362v3. Submitted to ApJ in 1996. 7553-7589.
Several star microlensing consortia (MACHO, OGLE, EROS etc.) fail to detect small-planetary-mass objects as the dominant inner-halo galactic dark matter because they assume the objects are not in clumps but are uniformly distributed. Preprints such as this example have been repeatedly rejected by the astronomical and astrophysical literature simply because HGD cosmology rejects the standard (now termed Concordance Cosmology) LambdaCDMHC model.
III. DARK ENERGY FALSIFICATION, SUPERMASSIVE AND ROTATING BLACK HOLES, MECHOS
20. Model for common growth of supermassive black holes, bulges and globular star clusters: ripping off Jeans clusters, Theo M. Nieuwenhuizen, (accepted Europhysics Letters 2011). 7590-7596.
21. Falsification of dark energy by fluid mechanics, Carl H. Gibson (preprint submitted to Journal of Fluid Mechanics 2011). 7597-7603.
22. Why No Energy Can Be Extracted From Rotating Kerr Black Holes, Abhas Mitra, K. D. Krori, 7604-7611.
IV. OCEANOGRAPHIC FIELD TESTS OF STRATIFIED TURBULENCE AND FOSSIL TURBULENCE PROCESSES
23. Coastal Microstructure: From Active Overturn to Fossil Turbulence, Pak Tau Leung, 7612-7750.
24. Energetics of the Beamed Zombie Turbulence Maser Action Mechanism for Remote Detection of Submerged Oceanic Turbulence, C. H. Gibson, V. G. Bondur, R. N. Keeler and P. T. Leung, 7751-7787.